Bob's Column For "The Country Today"
While the current Deseret and Citrus Ranch is the biggest cow-calf operation in the country currently, it may not be in the future. The Mormon Church recently bought a 380,000 acre ranch in the Florida panhandle which is now in timber but eventually will be logged off in parcels and provide more land to graze their constantly growing cattle herd.
Many areas of Wisconsin lost alfalfa stands last year due to the cold, wet weather of late winter and early spring around the state. That has meant many dairy farmers have had to scramble for alternative feeds for their herds since the haylage piles have been so much smaller for the feeding season. Farmers are anxiously watching the winter weather and are hopeful the bitterly cold temperatures in December and much of January won’t lead to another extensive round of winterkill across the state.
According to Dr. Dan Undersander, UW-Madison Forage Specialist there shouldn’t be a problem At the recent Agronomy Update and other forage meetings around the state , Undersander said he’s not worried about the cold taking out alfalfa stands, “because of the good snow cover we have across the state that’s protecting the plants.” As long as the snow stays, he said, the alfalfa should be in good shape. He reminded producers that the years when winterkill has been a problem in Wiscosnin was when there was little or no snow cover.
The key to alfalfa surviving the winter is the temperature of the crown of the plant which is two to four inches below the soil surface. If the temperature at that level gets to about 13 degrees the alfalfa will die if the temperature stays that cold for about three to four hours. That, Undersander says, shouldn’t happen this year because “snow is a tremendous insulator that protects the plants from the outside air temperature.”
Earlier this month the soil temperature at four inches on bare ground fell to seven or eight degrees, Undersander reported. But “that was still about 30 degrees warmer than the actual air temperature”, he added. Under the snow cover the four inch soil temperature during the recent cold snap was 28 to 30 degrees, meaning the snow was insulating the ground to another 25 to 30 degrees higher than the air temperature. Added together, that means the ground, under the snow, was about 50 degrees warmer than the air temperature, providing a safe environment for the alfalfa plants. Undersander said that’s why he’s confident the alfalfa, up to this point of the winter is doing well.
The importance of the continued snow cover is that it prevents frost from penetrating deep into the soil taking soil temperatures down with it. When soil freezes it seldom falls below 26 or 28 degrees, Undersander told his audiences, if there is a snow cover, because, “snow cover always trumps air temperature” he said.
During his presentations, Undersander reminded the farmers that survival depends on keeping temperatures above 15 degrees at the crown not at the regrowth of the plant. As long as there is as little as four inches of loose snow on the ground, it will insulate up to 16 degrees of air temperature and since there is much more than four inches of snow cover across the state, our stands are doing well as we get ready for the next cold round of weather.
Undersander also told farmers not to be concerned about alfalfa stands smothering under heavy snows as the stems will stand up through the snow cover and provide air to the plants as they poke through the cover. The same, he said, can’t always be said for grassy stands or pastures as grasses tend to lay over and can smother under heavy blankets of snow.
The deep snow cover should also provi
At a stopover in Kansas City last week on his way to California, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack spent about an hour discussing farm policy, mainly progress on a new farm bill, with members of the National Association of Farm Broadcasting at the group’s annual convention. He emphasized that a farm bill reaches far and wide and has a major effect on the country as a whole, not just farm country. Vilsack told the broadcasters, “The country, not just the rural parts and farmers, needs a farm bill because of the policy certainty that comes with a farm bill.” He added that during his visits around the country in recent months, he’s heard real concerns from farmers that “They can’t make decisions, they don’t know what to do. Some would like to expand their operations or go into a new operation or buy a new piece of equipment, but they are hesitant to do any of that because they simply don’t know what the programs are going to be or if there is going to be a program.”
The secretary said a strong farm safety net needs to be the basis of a new farm bill based on today’s farming environment. That’s where he believes the discussion gets off track. Negotiators talk about the importance of farm programs to farmers, but the discussion, he feels, “needs to be expanded because it’s important to all Americans.” He emphasized to the farm broadcasters that as a farmer, “You can do everything right and still end up with no crop through no fault of your own.” Without an adequate safety net, to reduce risk to a manageable level, he argued, a lot of people could get out of the business. If that happens Vilsack said, “We could eventually see our country going from a food secure nation that produces enough to feed our people and more around the world to a food insecure nation.” That, he added, could very well threaten our nation’s strength and safety if we have to depend on others.
Another reason a new, long term farm bill is good for everyone across the country, he added, is because this is a reform bill. He noted that reform now seems to be in the form of budget cuts almost across the board and that makes a farm bill fiscally responsible because we would know where we are going. Among other things he said, a new farm bill would help hold down interest rates and encourage consumer spending, something that would help all Americans.
He also cited conservation programs as another area that benefits everyone across the country. He pointed out that,” Nearly half of the U.S. land mass is tied up in farming and ranching and forestry and those industries have a huge impact on air and water quality as well as soil health and fertility, all things that sustain life.”
Expansion of market opportunities is another area of the farm bill that has benefits for more than just farmers. Farm bill programs and initiatives, Vilsack said, have promoted local and regional food systems, export markets and new bio-based manufacturing operations that produce new products. Those activities all create jobs Vilsack pointed out, “And the more jobs we have in the economy, the stronger our economy is, the less the deficit is and the stronger the nation is.”
A new farm bill also has to be considered an innovation bill, according to the secretary. Part of the funding in the bill will go to research at our land grant universities. That research Vilsack said, “ provides jobs in those university towns and new ways to do business to market our increasing agricultural production around the world.” Our innovative agricultural research has helped make
Every day more and more state farmers have to make the decision on what to do with their corn crop and when to do it. The situation is different from last year when early planting in March saw the plants suffer from drought early on only to be somewhat rescued by some timely July rains for pollination. Even that was a challenge though because the early planted corn meant the pollination dates were off so some of the rains came late.
This year the early planted corn looks the best while much of the later planted corn (June and July) is under real stress. That, according to UW-Extension Corn Specialist, Joe Lauer, is stressing farmers too, because they’re looking at severely reduced yields, “if that corn is lucky enough to make grain,” he told farmers at a recent field day in Western Wisconsin. For every day planting is delayed from the ideal May 15 to the 20th planting window, yield losses amount to about 2 to 3% a day for each day of delay, so “farmers are getting hit with lost gain yields right off the bat with late planting dates and even if conditions were ideal during the rest of the season, you can never, ever recover all that yield with these late planting dates.”
Lauer told the farmers that the early planted fields should be ok for grain if we have normal killing frost dates. He told the group that, ”if it’s dented, there is still 25 to 40% of the yield to be made in September so any fields at that stage should be in good shape.” It’s the later planted corn that Lauer said they need to focus on right now Fields that are still in the milk or dough stage are “the ones to target for corn silage”, Lauer said.
The best thing farmers can do is decide what to do if we do get an early frost. He said they should line up their fields for harvest going from the most mature to the least mature. That way they are ready for the custom harvesters who are going to be in a time crunch this year with the cropping situation across the state as they go from corn silage to high moisture corn and snaplage.
Most likely the best fields to come off as corn silage will be the approximately 30% of the fields that were planted in June because Lauer said, “they will be the lowest yielding, the wettest and very expensive to try to get to a grain harvest.”
At this stage the most important factor in the equation, Lauer said is not grain yield but whole plant moisture. “It has to go up at the right moisture for the structure used so we get proper fermentation and good quality feed,” Lauer told the group. For that he said the late planted fields are the best candidates.
He also told the farmers not to panic about now and put the crop up too wet. He urged them to read the plants. Just because the plants are brown and some of the lower leaves are brown and dying doesn’t mean the plant is ready to chop. In many cases, he pointed out, that plant is still putting on yield. Lauer told the farmers to check the ear leaf. “If that leaf is still green or partially green, that plant is still producing grain yield,” Lauer explained. In fact, he told the farmers that leaf alone accounts for between 50 and 60% of the grain yield of that plant. He also told them to check the leaves directly above and below the ear leaf. “Those leaves, he said, account for about another 30% of grain yield,
When asked to compare the drought of 2012 with the conditions of this year, Halopka said that “at least last year we had a crop-the corn was respectable and the forages were short, but right now, until we see what fall is like, we’re not real sure what we have.”
It’s the most wonderful time of the year for many in Wisconsin as the summer fair season is at its peak with many of the state’s 76 county and district fairs still ahead. Reports we have seen from already completed fairs show attendance is up as July was a cooler and drier month, encouraging visitors to attend their local fair.
The Rally to Fight Hunger, though, was just one aspect of the FFA’s annual Day of Service to the Madison community as a thank you for being such a good host to the state convention for the past 15 years. Other activities last week included FFA members donating over 500 hours of labor to help at the River Food Pantry in Madison, the Madison city parks, the Community Action Coalition, and Troy Gardens, as FFA members continue to follow and practice their motto.
Jergenson also added that a lot of the people that worked on the 1987 Farm Progress Show that was also in Barron County have stepped forward and while some can’t physically help this time, “the community that is Barron County is supporting this show 100% in whatever way they can.” This year’s theme is Agribusiness..Cultivating Our Future, something Jergenson says is bright in Barron County.
Here we go again. This is the week both the House and Senate Agriculture Committees have promised rural America that they will get together in their respective chambers in Washington and work out another farm bill. In fairness to the committees and their leaders, they did get the job done last year on a new farm bill but the House leadership under Speaker John Boehner never brought a bill to the floor so a new farm bill could be put in place. So what’s the difference this year? There are no looming elections this fall.
The overall price of a new farm bill is going to be north of $900 billion over the next 10 years even though the final bill will only deal with actual farm and food policy for the next five years. The challenge for the Congressmen and Senators is where to spend and where to save. Food and nutrition programs will be one of the major areas of disagreement between the two bodies. The two bodies are about $15 billion apart on the amount of cuts they are calling for to feed the needy. The Senate wants to cut only about $4.1 billion over the next 10 years while the House bill calls for cuts of $20.5 billion. That would just about account for the spending cuts called for in each of the bills as the Senate is looking to cut about $23 billion over 10 years while the House proposal would cut almost $40 billion over the same period for the entire bill. Observers of the process say cuts to food and nutrition programs have to be that high in the House proposal to get the support of the right wing of the Republican party in the House.
The debate and differences over food and nutrition programs may make the dairy title a little less acrimonious this time around. From early reports, both the House and Senate mark ups have included most, if not all, of the Dairy Security Act being promoted by the National Milk Producers Federation(NMPF).. That program would feature the margin insurance provision that NMPF officials tout as the future for dairy policy by providing dairy farmers with effective risk management tools and cut program costs to taxpayers. The chairs and ranking members of both ag committees have signed off on the program and have concluded it would be the best for the dairy industry moving forward,
Not all in the industry agree, however. The Dairy Business Association (DBA), headquartered in Green Bay, is adamantly opposed to the Dairy Security Act because of the supply management provision included in the plan, a program known as the Dairy Market Stabilization Program DBA officials have been lobbying Congress to oppose that plan because “it would require farmers to either discard a portion of their milk production in excess of their base or not get paid for any milk produced over and above that base.” Other concerns include the potential to reduce farmers’ milk checks periodically and unpredictably as well as make the U.S. an inconsistent supplier of dairy products to the world market.
So far, support for the DBA position has come from at least five members of the Wisconsin Congressional delegation, which has written a letter to the chair and ranking member of the House ag committee, asking them to reconsider their support for the supply management portion of the Dairy Security Act. Those bipartisan letter writers are Congressmen Sean Duffy, Ron Kind, Thomas Petri, Mark Pocan and F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. Some DBA members who were in Washington a week ago even had an audience with House Speaker John Boehner to explain to him the problems created by a supply management program and how they are ready to support a major move away from “the outdated, anti-free market dairy policies that have been in e
The challenge that developed nations must deal with is well known. By 2050 the population of the world will be between 9and 10 billion people. To feed that many people, farmers around the world must produce more food between now and then than they have produced since the beginning of time. A big part of that equation will be how Mother Nature deals with the world’s climate in the intervening years.
Recently at one of the Wisconsin Farmers’ Union’s Spring Tour meetings, Craig Edwards, chief meteorologist with the U.S. Weather Service, told the mostly farmer audience that the trend is for rising temperatures with increasing greenhouse gasses. That, he said, will provide one of the challenges to increased food production over the next three to four decades.
At that Eau Claire session, Edwards also declared, “The drought is over in Wisconsin.” The facts and the continuing wet, snowy conditions across the state seem to justify that statement. Edwards said the spring outlook calls for above normal precipitation across the state and upper Midwest for April, May and June. That follows a winter of snowfall that isn’t over yet and has been above normal. In west central Wisconsin, over 73 inches of snow fell this past winter and spring. That is about 27 inches above normal and one of the 10 snowiest winters ever. The record snowfall for western Wisconsin was the 89.3 inches that fell in the winter of 1996-97. Looking at the latest U.S. Drought Monitor, it now has removed southern and south central parts of Wisconsin from the abnormally dry category while the rest of the state is now in some stage of moderate drought, but that is expected to change when the updated drought monitor comers out this week.
Besides rainfall, temperatures are another major factor in farmers’ success in the future. 2012 was the 10th warmest year since the 1880s, according to Edwards, and March 2012 was the warmest March on record with temperatures that month 15 ½ degrees warmer than normal. But as farmers said at that recent Farmers” Union meeting, “that was last year.” This spring farmers all over the state are worried about planting dates as snow remains in many areas and residual frost is still a problem preventing the melting snow from soaking in to the fields recovering from the hot, dry growing season of 2012.
Edwards said many weather watchers blame our recent weather on climate change or global warming. He pointed out that there is a difference between the two. He referred to climate change as being what happens over time while those changes cause a phenomenon like global warming. The thing, he pointed out to the audience, is that every 10 years we are dealing with a new normal. He explained that, “We have now replaced the ‘70s weather facts and figures with the same information from the first 10 years of the new century and that has meant our overall temperature at our latitude in the upper Midwest has increased by three degrees, especially during winter months.”
He also showed how global warming advocates make their point, citing the increase in greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere as everyone leaves a carbon footprint on our environment. In Wisconsin we are seeing higher temperatures and more intense weather events than ever before. As an example of that he alluded to the Lake Delton 12 inch rainfall deluge of a few years ago that washed the lake away. And he cited other such Mi